Renesas V850E(Ix4)单片太阳能逆变器解决方案

2011年06月30日 12:06    Liming
关键词: Renesas , V850E , 单片太阳能 , 逆变器
Renesas公司的V850E/Ix4是32位单片微控制器,包括V850E/IG4和V850E/IH,采用V850E1 CPU内核,并集成了ROM/RAM以及各种外设功能如DMA控制器,定时器/计数器,看门狗定时器,串行接口,ADC以及片上调试功能.主要用在消费类电子如空调逆变器,洗衣机,干燥机和冰箱等,以及工业设备如马达控制,通用逆变器等.本文介绍了V850E/IG4和V850E/IH4主要特,方框图, 电网和单相三线逆变器的连接图, 带变压器的电网和三相逆变器的连接图以及两片太阳能逆变器解决方案和采用V850E/Ix4的单片太阳能逆变器解决方案.

V850E/IG4和V850E/IH4: 32-bit Single-Chip Microcontrollers

The V850E/IG4 and V850E/IH4 are 32-bit single-chip microcontrollers that use the V850E1 CPU core and incorporate ROM/RAM and various peripheral functions such as DMA controller, timer/counter, watchdog timer, serial interfaces, A/D converter, and on-chip debug function.

In addition to high real-time response characteristics and 1-clock-pitch basic instructions, the V850E/IG4 and V850E/IH4 feature instructions such as multiply instructions realized by a hardware multiplier, saturated operation instructions, and bit manipulation instructions, as optimum instructions for digital servo control applications. Moreover,as a real-time control system, the V850E/IG4 and V850E/IH4 enable an extremely high cost-performance for applications such as motor inverter control.

V850E/IG4和V850E/IH4主要特性:

Minimum instruction execution time:

10 ns (at internal 100 MHz operation)

General-purpose registers: 32 bits × 32

CPU features: Signed multiplication (16 bits × 16 bits → 32 bits or 32 bits × 32 bits → 64 bits):1 to 2 clocks

Saturated operation instructions (with overflow/underflow detection function)

32-bit shift instructions: 1 clock

Bit manipulation instructions

Load/store instructions with long/short format

Signed load instructions

Internal memory: RAM: 24 KB (See Table 1-1)

Flash memory: 256/384/480 KB (See Table 1-1)

On-chip debug function: Supports MINICUBE®, MINICUBE2.

Interrupts/exceptions: Non-maskable interrupts: 1 source (external: none, internal: 1)

Maskable interrupts: 103 sources (external: 22, internal: 81)

Software exceptions: 32 sources

Exception traps: 2 sources

DMA controller: 7 channels

Transfer unit: 8 bits/16 bits/32 bits

Maximum transfer count: 4096 (212)

Transfer type: 2-cycle

Transfer modes: Single/single step

Transfer targets: On-chip peripheral I/O ↔ Internal RAM

Transfer request: On-chip peripheral I/O/software

Next address setting function

I/O lines: V850E/IG4: Total: 67 (Input ports: 12, I/O ports: 55)

V850E/IH4: Total: 80 (Input ports: 12, I/O ports: 68)

Timer/counter function: 16-bit interval timer M (TMM): 4 channels

16-bit timer/event counter AA (TAA): 3 channels

16-bit timer/event counter AB (TAB): 2 channels

16-bit timer/event counter T (TMT): 4 channels

Motor control function (uses timer TAB: 2 channels (TAB0, TAB1), TAA: 2 channels(TAA0, TAA1))

16-bit accuracy 6-phase PWM function with deadtime: 2 channels

High-impedance output control function

A/D trigger generation by timer tuning operation function

Arbitrary cycle setting function

Arbitrary deadtime setting function

Watchdog timer: 1 channel

Serial interfaces: Asynchronous serial interface A (UARTA)

Asynchronous serial interface B (UARTB)

Clocked serial interface F (CSIF)

I2C bus interface (I2C)

UARTA0/CSIF0: 1 channel

UARTA1/I2C: 1 channel

UARTA2/CSIF1: 1 channel

UARTB/CSIF2: 1 channel

A/D converter: • 12-bit resolution A/D converters (A/D converters 0 and 1)

V850E/IG4: 4 channels + 3 channels (2 units)

V850E/IH4: 4 channels + 4 channels (2 units)

The three A/D converter 0 channels and three A/D converter 1 channels are

provided with an operational amplifier for input level amplification and a

comparator for overvoltage detection.

• 10-bit resolution A/D converter (A/D converter 2): 12 channels (1 unit)

Clock generator: 10 to 12.5 MHz resonator connectable (external clock input prohibited)

Multiplication function by PLL clock synthesizer (fixed to multiplication by eight, fXX =80 to 100 MHz)

CPU clock division function (fXX, fXX/2, fXX/4, fXX/8)

Power-save function: HALT/IDLE/STOP mode

Power-on-clear function

Low-voltage detection function

Package: • V850E/IG4: 100-pin plastic LQFP (fine pitch) (14 × 14)

100-pin plastic LQFP (14 × 20)

• V850E/IH4: 128-pin plastic LQFP (fine pitch) (14 × 20)

O Operating supply voltage: When any A/D converter from 0 to 2 is operating

VDD0 = VDD1 = VDD2 = VDD3 (V850E/IH4 only) = 1.35 to 1.65 V

FVDD (V850E/IH4 only) = 4.0 to 5.5 V

EVDD0 = EVDD1 = EVDD2 = EVDD3 (V850E/IH4 only) = AVDD0 = AVDD1 = AVDD2 = 4.0 to 5.5 V

When no A/D converter from 0 to 2 is operating

VDD0 = VDD1 = VDD2 = VDD3 (V850E/IH4 only) = 1.35 to 1.65 V

FVDD (V850E/IH4 only) = 4.0 to 5.5 V

EVDD0 = EVDD1 = EVDD2 = EVDD3 (V850E/IH4 only) = AVDD0 = AVDD1 = AVDD2 = 3.5 to 5.5 V

V850E/IG4和V850E/IH4应用:

• Consumer equipment (such as inverter air conditioners, washing machines, driers, refrigerators, etc.)

• Industrial equipment (such as motor control, general-purpose inverters, etc.)
20110630113550490.gif

图1.V850E/Ix4 MCU框图
2011063011355019.gif

图2.V850E/IG4方框图
2011063011355272.gif

图3.V850E/IH4方框图

Solar power is truly a free source of energy which requires only the means of capturing, storing and smart distribution without the pollution associated with conventional sources such as burning fossil fuels, or the potential hazards of nuclear power. It is estimated that up to 30% of the conventional energy produced in the world is lost during power transmission over long distance, power conversion and oversupply. The use of locally distributed systems such as solar or wind can overcome most of these losses. It is estimated that the energy delivered to the earth by the sun every day can power our homes and businesses for almost 30 years. Although the energy is free, the technology to capture it and make it available for everyone comes at a cost that is becoming more and more competitive. Funded by private or public money, small start-ups and large energy providers and distributors work effortlessly to develop new materials and more efficient ways to bring down the cost and make it available to a larger customer base. Scalability from small to big, from simple to complex makes solar power one of the most attractive sources of alternative energy. Not only large energy companies but also home owners can benefit from this fast growing industry.

Solar power can be harvested in two ways: Produce electrical power directly from the sun light using photovoltaic solar panels as DC or AC source voltage, or use the heat produced by the sun to heat up steam to drive a turbine to produce electricity. The subject of this application note is focused on the first of the two which we will call for convenience the photovoltaic method.

One of the most important aspects of energy production from the sun is the availability of steady sun light throughout the day and year. Location of the plant is also very important as not all areas of the globe have enough sun light to justify the expense. Places in the USA like: California, Nevada and Arizona where the sun shines between 250 to 300 days a year, are ideal sites to set-up solar energy production. Even though there is plenty of sun light in these areas, to maintain a steady flow of electrical energy is a challenge. Although on darker days there is still some sun light, the electrical output is quite diminished. At night obviously there is no sun light at all. The first problem can be easily dealt with by storing the energy produced when the sun shines to compensate for darker days. For the second problem there is no solution. But since the peak demands are during the day to maximize energy production when sun light is available is crucial to justify the investment. For the above reasons obviously solar power can’t be a standalone source of energy, it has to be combined with other forms of production. On the other hand since it is considered free and the cleanest off all, the more we use it the less we need other forms that are polluting the environment and are becoming less and less available as well as more expensive to provide. Solar energy production is clearly the way of the future. We just need to make it cheaper and available to a larger consumer base.
20110630113553944.gif

图4.太阳能发电示意图
20110630113553543.gif

图5.电网和单相三线逆变器的连接图
20110630113554647.gif

图6.带变压器的电网和三相逆变器的连接图
20110630113554161.gif

图7.逆变器定时器方框图
20110630113554851.gif

图8.两片太阳能逆变器解决方案
20110630113556433.gif

图9.采用V850E/Ix4的单片太阳能逆变器解决方案
详情请见:
http://www2.renesas.com/maps_download/pdf/U19517EJ2V0UD00.pdf

http://www2.renesas.com/maps_download/pdf/U20193EU1V0AN00.pdf
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1770309616 发表于 2011-9-28 00:26:12
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